Evaluation of hindfoot and knee alignment by the hip-to-calcaneus view in patients with knee osteoarthritis and healthy individuals

Published:September 07, 2022DOI:


      • Hindfoot assessment with the hip-to-calcaneus view is high intra- and interobserver reliabilities.
      • The use of the hip-to-calcaneus view allows the evaluation of both the knee and the hindfoot alignment.
      • Using the hip-to-calcaneus view in total knee arthroplasty planning can reduce the cost of radiography and the patient’s exposure to radiation.



      Hip-to-calcaneus (HC) view is a whole-leg standing view that can visualize the hindfoot in detail. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of tibiocalcaneal angle in HC view (H-TCA) by comparing it with that in long axial view (L-TCA). We also verified whether periarticular knee alignment parameters, measured conventionally in whole-leg standing radiography, could be measured in HC view.


      Sixty healthy volunteers and 61 patients with medial knee osteoarthritis were included. H-TCA was measured by two examiners in the healthy group, and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were evaluated. H-TCA and L-TCA were then measured in the healthy and osteoarthritis groups and correlated. Finally, we measured hip–knee–ankle angle, mechanical axis deviation ratio, mechanical lateral distal femoral angle, medial proximal tibial angle, and joint-line convergence angle in HC view and conventional whole-leg standing radiography to evaluate statistical differences and correlations.


      The intra-observer and inter-observer ICCs were 0.86 and 0.76, respectively. Correlation coefficients (r) between H-TCA and L-TCA were r = 0.87 in healthy group and r = 0.81 in osteoarthritis group, indicating a strong positive correlation in both groups. There was no significant difference in periarticular knee alignment parameters between HC view and conventional whole-leg radiography.


      Hindfoot evaluation in HC view showed high intra-observer and inter-observer reliabilities and strong positive correlation with TCA in long axial view. By using HC view before knee surgery, such as total knee arthroplasty, other necessary alignments can be evaluated simultaneously.


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