Visualising knee loading patterns during kneeling and the development of a laboratory-based adaptation of the Aberdeen Weight-Bearing Test (Knee)

Published:September 10, 2022DOI:


      • Developed technique to visualise knee loading patterns during kneeling.
      • Inferior patella tendon was most frequently loaded during kneeling.
      • The lab-AWT-K indicates location and magnitude of applied loads.



      Information regarding the loading of key anatomical structures of the knee during kneeling would enhance existing functional tests, yet current visualisation methods are limited and require further development.


      (1) Develop a knee loading visualisation technique to investigate loading patterns of the knee during kneeling; and (2) determine the utility of the technique in combination with vertical ground reaction forces and centre of pressure data in the lab-based Aberdeen Weight-Bearing Test (Knee) by assessing their reliability.


      Fourteen healthy participants conducted kneeling tasks with and without knee pads across two testing sessions. Eight force-sensitive resistors were affixed to the right knee throughout different kneeling tasks: upright kneeling, and reaching forward, back, left, and right. A photo of the force-sensitive resistor configuration was used to generate participant-specific heat maps of knee loading. Two in-ground force platforms were used to measure vertical ground reaction forces and centre of pressure.


      The inferior patella tendon showed the highest proportion of activation during both bare and knee pad kneeling for all kneeling tasks. Knee pads reduced the repeatability of knee loading patterns. Force-sensitive resistor activation and vertical ground reaction force components of the lab-based Aberdeen Weight-Bearing Test (Knee) were shown to be reliable, whereas the centre of pressure data was unreliable.


      We have developed a lab-based technique for visualising knee loading using force-sensitive resistors. The combination of force-sensitive resistor activation and vertical ground reaction force data provides valuable insights into both the magnitude and locations of applied loads throughout kneeling.


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