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Postoperative bleeding adversely affects total knee arthroplasty outcomes in hemophilia

Published:October 22, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.knee.2022.10.001

      Highlights

      • Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with functional improvement for advanced hemophilic arthropathy.
      • Nearly a third (34%) of patients experience major postoperative bleeding complications (hemarthrosis, hemorrhagic bullae, hematoma formation, prolonged wound bleeding).
      • Hemophilia patients with early bleeding after TKA have worse long-term functional outcomes.
      • Early bleeding causes lesser improvements in range of motion, flexion contracture, and knee function scores.

      Abstract

      Background

      Hemophilic arthropathy can result in severe degenerative arthritis and functional limitations in the knees of relatively young patients. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) provides pain relief and gain of function in advanced-stage hemophilic arthropathy cases. However, little is known about the long-term effects of early major postoperative bleeding (MPOB) in people with hemophilia (PWH). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of early MPOB on the final functional outcome, complications, and implant survival of TKA in a single-center hemophilia cohort.

      Method

      PWH who underwent TKA between 1998 and 2019 in a single center were reviewed. Demographic data, clinical data, and radiographic images were evaluated. Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS), Knee Society Score (KSS), and Knee Society Function Score (KSS-F) scores were used to determine function. Patients with early bleeding complications (wound dehiscence, ecchymosis, hemarthrosis, hematoma formation, prolonged or recurrent bleeding attacks) were defined as the bleeding group. Patients who did not experience these complications were assigned to the control group. The bleeding group was compared with controls. Survival of the primary arthroplasty was analyzed by Kaplan–Meier curves.

      Results

      Forty-five TKAs in 29 patients were included in the study. TKA led to an increase in the mean range of motion from 46.08° to 84.59° (P < 0.01). HSS scores increased from 48.33 preoperatively to 82.67 postoperatively (P < 0.01). There were improvements in both KSS and KSS-F scores from 34.22 and 53.3 preoperatively to 82.00 and 84.63 (P < 0.01), respectively. Ten patients (10 TKAs) (34%) experienced major bleeding during the postoperative period. Six of these patients had moderate hemophilia, and four had severe hemophilia. Three of these patients had hemarthroses (10.2%), one patient had a hematoma (3.4%), one patient had hemorrhagic bullae formation (3.4%), and five had excessive/prolonged bleeding from the wound (17%). The bleeding group (34%) had significantly worse HSS (63.78 vs 92.75, P < 0.001), KSS (61.78 vs 93.25, P < 0.001), and KSS-F (60.71 vs 96.25, P = 0.005) scores compared with controls. Preoperative and postoperative flexion contractures were positively correlated (+0.33, P = 0.003). One of the patients with postoperative hemarthrosis also had an accompanying transient common peroneal nerve palsy, and one patient (3.4%) had a periprosthetic fracture. Three knees (6.6%), two of whom were in the bleeding group, developed periprosthetic infections. Four knees (8.8%) in three patients underwent revision surgery, and two knees (4.4%) ended up in arthrodeses. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed a mean survival duration of 17.04 years for the bleeding group and 22.15 years for the control group (P = 0.83). Survival rates were 80.0% for the bleeding group and 96.4% for the control group (P = 0.83).

      Conclusions

      In this study, MPOB after TKA in PWH was common and led to significantly worse function. MPOB after TKA in PWH was associated with a higher rate of complications and lower survival rates, although the differences were not statistically significant. Efforts must be made to avoid MPOB after TKA in PWH.

      Keywords

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